Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) is the use of mathematical models of the Earth’s atmosphere and oceans to analyze weather conditions and make forecasts.
These models are what we see on the news or from meteorologists when monitoring large storms. Data from Earth observation sensors in space and on the ground are fed into computer simulations that can model air quality, climate, ocean surface conditions, tropical storms, and wildfires. Using NWP to create forecasts requires powerful supercomputers to handle the massive data inputs. Notoriously imperfect, NWPs can only predict about 6 days in advance.