Geostationary Orbit (GEO)

Geostationary orbit is also known as a geosynchronous orbit, is a special type of circular orbit around the Earth’s equator at an altitude of approximately 36,000 kilometres (22,300 miles). Satellites placed in this orbit have a unique characteristic that sets them apart from other orbits – their orbital period matches the Earth’s rotation period. This synchronisation enables these satellites to remain fixed in the sky relative to a specific point on Earth’s surface.

The geostationary orbit is positioned in such a way that satellites orbit the Earth at the same rate the Earth rotates on its axis. This alignment allows the satellites to maintain a constant position above a designated location on Earth, appearing stationary from the ground. It provides the advantage of continuous coverage over a specific area, making it ideal for applications that require uninterrupted communication, broadcasting, and observation.

Satellites in geostationary orbit serve various critical functions. They are commonly used for telecommunications, including television and radio broadcasting, satellite phone services, and internet connectivity. Due to their stationary nature, these satellites can establish a fixed link with ground-based antennas, providing consistent and reliable communication services over a specific region.