A specific type of satellite orbit that passes over the Earth’s poles and covers the entire surface of the Earth over time. Satellites in polar orbits follow a trajectory that takes them from the North Pole to the South Pole and vice versa during each orbit, providing global coverage.
Polar orbits are characterised by their inclination, which refers to the angle between the orbital plane and the Earth’s equator. In the case of polar orbits, the inclination is typically close to 90 degrees, meaning the orbit is nearly perpendicular to the equator.
One of the key advantages of polar orbits is their ability to cover the entire surface of the Earth. As the satellite travels from pole to pole, it crosses over different latitudes, providing observations and data collection from various regions. This global coverage is particularly beneficial for applications such as Earth observation, weather monitoring, environmental research, and mapping.